Today almost every home and small home office has a home network, and an Internet connection.
The current home network enables multiple devices e.g. PCs,tablets etc to connect to each other, and also to connect to the internet.
Today most home networks will use a mixture of Ethernet and Wi-fi wireless networking technology and the TCP/IP networking protocol.
Smart Home devices will connect either directly to the existing home network or else indirectly via a hub or gateway.( Zwave and Zigbee). See Home automation basics.
Today’s Home Networks- TCP/IP Basics
Current home networks that connect your tablet,PC and Smart phone to the Internet are based on the TCP/IP protocol.
Most homes will already have this network in place.
The following tutorial will help you understand, build, and extend a home TCP/IP network.
- Basic networking Course
- How to Set Up a Home Network
- How to Extend a Home Network
- Powerline Networking Guide -How To Setup HomePlug Adapters
- Home Wi-Fi Mesh Systems- Quick Overview
- How to Setup A Secure Wireless Home Network
Home networks use TPC/IP and although you don’t need to be a TPC/IP expert you should at least understand the basics, particularly device addressing and address allocation.
You will also encounter network problems so being familiar with troubleshooting tools like the ping command will be of great benefit.
Home Automation Networks – Z-Wave, Zigbee
Smart home devices are almost all wireless devices. The initial requirement of these devices was for low powered devices which meant that Wi-FI wireless technology that is used on TCP/IP based networks was not considered suitable.
Therefore the first home automation devices were developed to use Z-Wave or Zigbee wireless technologies.
The main advantages of these technologies is low power and they are not affected as much by the building layout giving them better coverage.
Because these technologies don’t use WI-FI or TCP/IP they don’t have an IP addresses.
This means that you cannot connect a Zigbee or Z-Wave device directly to a WI-FI or TCP/IP based network.
However to really be smart, devices should ideally be controllable from across the Internet.
Which in turn means that they will need to connect to TCP/ IP network.
Therefore many home automation networks will require some form of hub or gateway to connect them to the existing Wi-Fi or Wired network and will look like the one shown in the diagram below:
Smart devices will also have a variety of addresses depending on the protocol that they are using.
Zigbee and Z-Wave networks don’t have IP addresses but use their own addresses structure.
and the Smart hubs and Gateways guide
Note: The terms hub and Gateway are used interchangeably on smart home networks. See what is a Hub
Connecting To The Internet
Almost all home networks will be connected to the Internet.
- Internet Connection and Access Methods
- Troubleshooting Home Network and Internet Connection Problems
- Internet Speeds Explained
Future Networks and Summary
Many new smart devices are now using Wi_fi (e.g. Sonoff) and so can connect directly to the existing home Wi-Fi network.
However because of the early adoption of Z-wave in particular, and also Zigbee, there are many device types that are currently only available for Z-wave or Zigbee.
A quick search on Amazon showed around 7,000 pages for Zigbee and 56,000 pages for Z-Wave.
It seems Z-Wave, because of its simple design already dominates and will likely increase its dominance over Zigbee.
In addition there are also proprietary home automation networks and protocols like Mi Home (UK).
Personally I think Wi-Fi will dominate in the future with Z-Wave and Zigbee being used in special or legacy environments, and were low power and range are important.
Smart Home Networking Quiz
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Quick Quiz to test your knowledge of Home networking concepts and technologies.
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Question 1 of 5
All Devices on a smart home network must have an IP address?Correct
Because a smart home network is usually a mixture of wireless technologies like W-Fi,Zwave and ZigBee then not all devices will have an IP Address.
Question 2 of 5
Wi-Fi is the only Wireless technology used on a Smart Home Network?Correct
Question 3 of 5
To Connect A Zigbee network to a Wi-Fi network you need a?Correct
Question 4 of 5
Zigbee can’t be controlled from the Internet?Correct
Question 5 of 5
Alexa doesn’t require an Internet Connection to Work?Correct
Related Tutorials and Resources
- Setting Up and building a Home Network
- Introduction to Sonoff Switches
- Setting up the Sonoff Tasmota MQTT Switch