How to Extend a Home Network

extending-home-network-iconMost people want to access the Internet from any room in the house/office and maybe even in the garden or summer house.

Although most people will want extended Wireless (Wi-Fi) access we will also look at how to extend both wired access and wireless access.



If we start with a basic home network consisting of a single Wireless access point (WAP) that is part of the Wireless router as described in building a home network. and shown below:home-networking-diagram

The home router is the hub of the network as it connects your home network to the Internet.

This basic configuration can be extended to provide both wired and Wireless access using a variety of methods and illustrated in the network diagram below:
General-Home-Networking-Diagram
Extending Wi-Fi Access

Before you go to the trouble of extending a network it is a good idea to try an get a better signal by relocating the router/Wireless access point if possible.

If we assume that the present WAP (Wireless Access Point) covers area 1 but not area 2 and our task is to extend the Wi-Fi network to cover area 2.

To extend the Wi-Fi coverage to area 2 we will need a second WAP (Wireless access point), and this second access point will need to connect to the WAP in Area 1.

extend-home-network-1

There are three methods available for connecting the Wireless Access Points ( WAPs) together. They are:

  • Use a WAP connected to the hub on network 1 using a UTP Ethernet cable.
  • Use a WAP connected to the hub on network 1 using Homeplug adapters.
  • Connect with Wi-FI using a Wi-Fi range extender or repeater.

Using a Wireless Repeater or Range Extender

This is probably the quickest and easiest method and according to a recent survey used by over 20% ot US households.

It is also the slowest and the most error prone method method.

Note You will hear the terms repeater,range extender and booster used but they are generally describing the same thing.

A Wireless Repeater takes a wireless signal and then re-broadcasts it.

This means that the repeater must be in range of the original Wireless signal.

It also usually means that the throughput is halved. However some repeaters using different bands i.e. they could use the 5Ghz band for the connection to the WAP and the 2.5 Ghz band for connecting devices.wireless-repeater-extender

The repeater creates a second Wireless network which usually has a different SSID than the original network.

Because wireless devices on network 2 must go through two wireless hops this connection method is much slower than using an Ethernet extension cable or homeplug adaptors.

Extending a Wired Network

To extend a wired network you will need an Ethernet Switch.

You use a port on the Home router to connect to the remote switch using either:

  • A long UTP cable
  • Homeplug adapters.

This is illustrated in the main network diagram above.

General Considerations

Using an Ethernet UTP Cable

You can purchase UTP connection cables of various lengths which means that you don’t need to create your own cables.

You should note that the maximum cable distance between network devices is 100m.

However you will need to run the cable between rooms which usually involves drilling holes etc.

Although this is a very low cost method it is usually not the easiest. It does however provide the fastest and most reliable connection.

See How to Wire your Home Network

Using Homeplug Adapters

Homeplug adaptors are the more flexible option than straight wiring as they can easily add network connectivity to any room that has a power outlet.

They work by using the home electrical wiring to carry the Ethernet signal between rooms.

Homeplug adapters can be used to extend both a wired and wireless network .

Generally they work in pairs but you can use more than 2 on a network. They plug into the mains socket and usually provide an Ethernet connection on each end.

homeplug-ethernet

You simply plug the Ethernet cables into the adapters at each end.

They can also come with built in wireless access points so that you don’t need an additional wireless access points to extend the wireless network.

homeplug-ethernet-wifi

Homeplug adapters with built in Wireless access points tend to be a little more expensive than standard Ethernet ones but are very convenient. RefPowerline networking guide

Network SSIDs (Network Name)

Regardless of how you extend the network you will likely end up with two or more wireless networks.

You can configure these networks to use the same broadcast SSID so that they appear to be a single network but this can cause problems with some devices.

On my network I use different SSIDs but the same password.

Ref-

The Screen shot below shows my home network with multiple Access points and Network IDs.

multiple Wi-Fi networks

Extending Ethernet Ports

If you are short of Ethernet ports in any location you can use a second Ethernet switch connected to the other Ethernet switch as shown in the diagram below.

Connecting-Ethernet-Switches-Together
Note: It isn’t important which port you use.

Extending Ethernet Cable

You can extend an Ethernet cable using an Ethernet coupler like the one below.

ethernet-coupler

You can also get a cable with female connection as shown below

Ethenet-extension-cable

The connecting cable category (5,6,7) should match or be better than the existing cable female socket to match your cable.

Extending with an Ethernet Repeater

The maximum cable distance between networking devices on an Ethernet network is 100m.

However this can be extending to approx 300m by using an Ethernet repeater/extender. Most of the ones available today appear to be PoE repeaters.Ethernet-PoE-Extender

With PoE devices you can connect remote devices like IP cameras without the need for installing a separate power supply. See PoE for beginners

Wi-FI Mesh Networks

These are also relatively new systems that aim to provide Wi-Fi access in larger homes.

They comprise 2 or more Wi-Fi nodes that work together to offer a single Wi-Fi network (same SSID).

See Home Wi-Fi Mesh Systems- Quick Overview

Useful Devices

Wireless electrical power sockets are a new introduction to the market and function as wireless repeaters.

They are convenient because they don’t consume a electrical power socket. Here is a picture of a UK socket.

wi-fi-power-socket

 

Common Questions and Answers

Q-Can I use an old Wi-Fi router to extend my network.?

A- Yes but it will need to function solely as an access point. This PCworld article describes how.

Personally I’m not keen on this as the setup is convoluted, easy to get wrong, and it is not possible on all routers. Wi-Fi access points are cheap it is easier to get a new access point.

Q-Can I extend my home network with another router?

A- Yes but a router is the wrong choice on a home network unless you want two separate networks. A network switch is the better choice and the easiest. Using a router would involve setup that would require a very good knowledge of networking, and sub netting in particular.

Q-can you connect an Ethernet cable to a wifi extender?

A- Yes you use a WAP connected to an Ethernet port on your switch or router

Case Studies

I often get asked questions via the ask Steve page and thought it would be useful if I included the questions and answers here as they might be applicable to your situation. I have removed names to protect the identity.

Case Study 1 – Bad Wi-Fi

Question- Hi Steve, I have just moved into an old house in a rural location. Because of very poor WIFI over the land line and poor router signal coverage in the house (thick walls etc), the previous owner installed an EE SIMM based router linked by CAT5 to a ceiling mounted EnGenius EAP150. Apparently this has improved things (download speeds of 15 MBPS and 3.3 MBPS for uploads when close to the EAP), but the the signal does not go very far and dropped connections and lack of connection are a frequent pain. Using Netflix and a couple of mobile phones seems to cause loss of signal very easily, I guess this is a capacity issue? Can you make any suggestions on how to address these problems please? E.G Can I use signal boosters around the house to strengthen the EAP signal? Do I need a better WAP/EAP device? Are there other alternatives?

Answer – I would try using homeplug adapters you can get them with Wi-FI access points. Get a pair and put one next to your router and move the other wi-fi homeplug around the rooms to make sure it works as there could potentially be wiring problems. If that works ok you can always add additional adapters.

Reply – Many thanks for your suggestion. I bought some TP-Link power-line adapters and they work really well.

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49 comments

  1. I hope i get a reply here and via email. I am trying to set a network as follows. 50 yards to my southwest is a starlink dish and a TP Link AC750 archer C20 router. From the dish, are one to its south and one to its North two wireless access points using cat6 cable. I am getting decent internet in my house. About 60 yards to the south of me is an office that picks up the internet from the main router and the North Wireless Access Point but the North WAP is stronger. What I am wanting to do is set up a booster/extender in the office to get wifi deeper into the building. My question is do I use a static IP address of the North Wireless Access Point, or the default gateways IP. It seems that when i set up the booster things go south. I have been getting iffy wifi and crashes until just recently. A fix was when I started using address reservations for the IP addresses of each of the WAP’s on the north and south. On each of the North and south WAPs I did a reservation for the IP address and MAC address of the 2.4G, the 5G, and the WAN MAC address, so 3 for each WAP and things mellowed out it seems. Or, can a booster/extender not be connected to a WAP. I hope this makes sense and i hope you have an answer. Thanks

    1. Not sure about the reservations as you should only have a single IP address for the WAP.
      The extender uses an existing wireless network and the IP address is only for management.
      The extender can be connected to any existing WI-FI access point.
      Does that make sense?
      Rgds
      Steve

      1. Oops, the LAN has an IP address and the 2.4G and the 5G each have a Bssid that have a unique MAC address associated with each. Those are what i gave address reservations to. Thank you for the reply.

        1. Are you ok with the reply that you can add an extender to any existing wi_fi access point. You do not require an IP address as such to add it as the IP address used is only for management and can be dynamic. Using a fixed IP makes it easier to manage.
          Rgds
          Steve

  2. I need more ethernet ports for things like TV and cameras. If I understand this correctly, I can buy a switch, which acts like a hub. I would insert an ethernet cable into my router and then to the switch. After that has been done, I could then plug in any of those things (like TV and cameras) to the other unused ports in the switch.

    Question: Does it matter which ports I plug these items into? I have a Netgear S350 switch. The ports are simply labeled 1-8 (nothing else). If I’m right about this stuff…I think the thing is broken – cuz nothing works!

    1. Yes you are correct it should work. Check the configuration on the switch it may have been configured with VLANs if it is a smart switch.
      Rgds
      Steve

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